In the following essay, the linking words and phrases are left out. For numbers 1-12, choose the most appropriate words or phrases from those given below. For numbers 13-18, fill in each blank with any word or phrase that makes sense.
Every day we hear about the problem of hunger in Africa. Many authorities state causes, (1) __________ drought and overpopulation. They (2) __________ suggest solutions, (3) __________ food aid and population control.
It is true that such realities as drought and overpopulation worsen the problem of hunger in Africa. (4) __________, these realities are not the real cause of Africa's famine. The real culprit is poverty, (5) __________ only by doing something about poverty itself can we solve the hunger problem in Africa.
I am not suggesting that we ignore the problems of drought and overpopulation. (6) __________, I believe we should study them carefully in order to learn what lies behind them. Let us look, (7) __________, at droughts.
Insufficient rainfall is a problem for farmers all over the world, (8) __________ it is only the truly poor who die from it. How, (9) __________, did Africans become so poor? In the past several hundred years, with the help of European colonizers, the best farm lands were taken and planted in cash crops for export, with profits going to a few of the wealthy. (10) __________, there has not been enough food produced for the poor majority, (11) __________ it is these already hungry people who are so affected by drought. Since food aid treats symptoms, not causes, i suggest that the only long-lasting solution to this problem lies, not in food aid, (12) __________ in revising Africa's farming practices.
(13) __________, let's look at the second problem authorities mention, (14) __________, overpopulation. It is true that Africa's population growth rate is higher than that of any other continent. (15) __________, having many children is logical for African farmers, who need a lot of workers for the family farm and who know that one out of three of these children will die before adulthood. Studies from all over the world show that the best way to raise living standards is to lower birth rates. (16) __________, when African parents can be sure their children will survive and that they can earn a decent living, they will not need to have so many of them.
(17) __________, I suggest that when we hear the words drought and overpopulation in connection with famine in Africa, let's keep in mind the real enemy, (18) __________, poverty.
1. a) either b) consequently c) likewise d) such as
2. a) also b) but c) for example d) nevertheless
3. a) and b) such as c) besides d) on the other hand
4. a) and b) finally c) because d) however
5. a) or b) when c) and d) anyway
6. a) on the contrary b) at least c) moreover d) then
7. a) such as b) first c) however d) though
8. a) even though b) by the way c) but d) then
9. a) then b) however c) for instance d) well
10. a) on the contrary b) consequently c) second d) at last
11. a) when b) and c) because d) or
12. a) but b) and c) by the way d) though
13-18. Various answers